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The First Obligation After Iman 

By Dr. AbduUah Azzam 

(May Allah accept him as Shaheed) 
Enghsh translation work done by 
Brothers in Ribatt. 

(•-H ^rP^y^ j^J 


Biography of 

Shaheed Abdullah Azzam 

Abdullah Yusuf Azzam was born in a village in the North of Palestine named Selat Al 
Harithia in Genine District in the year 1941. His father's name was Mustafa Azzam who 
died a year after his son was assassinated. His mother was Zakia Saleh who died one year 
before the Sheikh was killed. She was buried in Pabi camp. 

The Azzam family is a well-known family, one of its members being Sheikh 
Abdullah Azzam, distinguished as child, who started making Da'wah at an early age. He 
was already showing signs of excellence and was recognized by his teachers while he was 
in elementary school. His peers knew him as a pious child. Since he was a small boy he 
was known for his determination and serious dispositions. Before he had even come of 
age, he joined the Muslim Brotherhood. 

Sheikh Abdullah Azzam received his early elementary and secondary school 
education in his village, and continued his education at the agricultural Khadorri College 
where he obtained a Diploma. Although he was the youngest of his colleagues, he was 
the brightest and most astute. After he graduated from Khodori College, he worked as a 
teacher in a village named Adder in the South of Jordan. Later he joined Shariah College 
in Damascus University where he obtained aB.A. Degree in^/iana/? in 1966. Afterthe 
Jews captured the West Bank in 1967, Sheikh Abdullah Azzam decided to migrate to 
Jordan, because he could not live under the Jewish occupation of Palestine. The sacrilege 
of the Israeli tanks rolling in the West Bank without any resistance made him more 
determined to migrate to learn the skills necessary to fight. 

In the late 1960's he joined the Jihad against the Israeli occupation of Palestine 
from Jordan. During that time he received a Masters degree in Shariah from the 
University of Al Azhar. In 1970 and after the jihad came to a halt, when the PLO was 
forced out of Jordan, he assumed a teaching position in the Jordanian University in 

Amman. In 1971 he was awarded a scholarship to Al Azhar University in Cairo from 
which he obtained a Ph.D. Degree in Ussul al Fiqh in 1973. During his stay in Egypt he 
came to know the family of Saeed Qutb. 

In 1979, when he was expelled from the university, he moved to Pakistan to be 
close to the Afghan Jihad. There, he became aquatinted with the leaders of the Jihad in 
Afghanistan. During the early period of his stay in Pakistan, he was appointed as a 
teacher in the International Islamic University in Islamabad. Eventually, it was necessary 
for him to resign his position in order to devote his full time and energy to the Jihad in 

Abdullah Azzam was greatly inAuenced by the Jihad in Afghanistan and the Jihad 
was greatly inAuenced by him. To it he concentrated his full effort, that he ultimately 
became the most prominent figure in the Afghani Jihad aside from the Afghan leaders. 
He spared no effort to promote the Afghan cause to the whole world, especially 
throughout the Muslim Ummah... He changed the minds of MusUms about Jihadin 
Afghanistan and presented the Jihad as an Islamic cause which concerns all Muslims 
around the world. Due to his efforts, the Afghani Jihad became universal, in which 
Muslims from every part of the world came to fight. 

Jihad in Afghanistan had made Abdullah Azzam the main pillar of the Jihad 
movement in modern times. By taking part in this Jihad, by promoting it and banishing 
the misconceptions which had been planted in the path of Jihad. He became an example 
to follow for the next generation that responded to the call of Jihad. 

Once he said, "I feel that I am nine years old, seven and a half years in the Afghan 
Jihad, one and a half years in Jihad in Palestine and the rest of the years have no value." 
On Eriday the 24th of November 1989 in Peshawar, Pakistan he was assassinated along 
with his two sons Mohammed and Ibrahim, by 20kg of TNT activated by remote control 
while he was driving to Eriday prayer. His car was blown to fragments in the middle of a 
busy street. Pieces his sons were discovered up to a hundred meters away. One of his 
son's legs was suspended to an overhanging telephone line. Nevertheless, Allah be 
glorified, the Sheikh was found intact, except for an internal hemorrhage, that caused of 
his death. Many can attest to the musk that emanated from his body. 

His son had asked that he be taken Shaheed along with his father. Sheikh Abdullah 
Azzam was buried in Pabi Graveyard of the Shuhada where he joined thousands of 
Shuhada (martyrs). 

{ ...j^ J^ j\i aIjI J,^>^ [5 \j\:3 ^wUlj } 

"...But those who are killed in the Way of AUah, He will never let their deeds be 

Mohammed: 4. 

Note From Your Brothers in Ribatt 

There is no Khalifa. After 1300 years ofIslamic rule. A glorious empire the world 
once feared. A people entrusted with thefinal revelation ofGod. The religion destined 
for the whole ofhumanity. Where is it today. The Najasun^'^ have duped the dull masses 
of Muslims by installing their wooden-headed puppets as false figureheads of states that 
remain under their control. Colonialism has taken anew face. They have come from 
every horiion to share us amongst them like callers to a feast. There is no greater 
humiliation for the people expected to lead humanity to redemption. How will they 
recogniie the gravity of the situation. Their house is crumbling and their neighbors are 
laughing. Again, what will make them realiie the gravity ofthe situation. 

"And those who dlsbelleve are allles to one another, (and) if you (Muslims of 
the whole world collectively) do not do so (i.e. become allies, as one united block with 
one Khalifa - chief Muslim ruler for the whole Muslim world to make victorious Allah's 
religion of Islamic Monotheism), there will be Pitnah ( wars, battles, polytheism, etc.) 
and oppression on earth, and a great mischief and corruption ( appearance of 
polytheism)." Al Anfal: 73. 

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"Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims and the 
maintenance of Al Masjid al Haram (at Mecca) as equal to the worth of those who 
beUeve in AUah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the Cause of AUah? 
They are not equal in the Sight of AUah. And AUah guides not those people who are 
the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)." At Tauba: 19 

Abdullah Ibn Mubarak (may Allah have mercy on him) sent a letter to Al Fuzail ibn 
Ayazz in which he says: "Oh you who offer prayer in the sacred mosque, had you 

1 n 

Najassun: impurity. Their impurity is spiritual and physical: spiritual, because they don't belieye in Allah's Oneness and in 

His Prophet Mohammed (saw); and physical, because they lack personal hygiene (filthy or Junuban as regards urine, stools 

and sexual discharges). 

participated with us in the fields of battle, you would have known that, compared to our 
jihad, your worship is the triAing of children. For every tear you have shed upon your 
cheek, we have shed in its place blood, on our chests. You are jesting with your worship, 
while you worshippers offer your worship, mujahideen offer their blood and person." 

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All Praise is for Allah. We praise him and seek his assistance. We ask for 
his forgiveness and take refuge in him from the evil within ourselves and from the evil of 
our deeds. He whom Allah guides will never be diverted yet whomever he sends astray 
will never find his way, and I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, alone, he has no 
partners, and I bear witness that Mohammed is his servant and messenger. O Lord, 
nothing is easy except for what you make easy. And you lighten distress if you wish. 

I wrote this Fatwa and its was originally larger than its present size. I showed it to 
our Great Respected Sheikh Abdul Aziz Bin Bazz. I read it to him, he improved upon it 
and he said "it is good" and agreed with it. But, he suggested to me to shorten it and to 

write an introduction for it with which it should be pubhshed. But the sheikh was busy, it 
being Hajj season, so he had not the time to review it again. 

Then the Sheikh (may Allah protect him) declared in the mosque of Ibn Ladna in 
Jeddah and in the large mosque of Riyadh that jihad with your person today is Fard Ayn ( 
global obHgation ). Then I showed this Fatwa, without the six questions at the end, to the 
peers of Sheikh Abdullah al Waan, Saeed Hawa, Mohammed Najeeb al Mutyey, Dr. 
Hassin Hamid Hissan and Umar Sayaf. I read it to them, they agreed with it and most of 
them signed it. Likewise, I read it to Sheikh Mohammed Bin Salah Bin Uthaimin and he 
too signed it. 

I also read it to Sheikh Abdur Razaq Afiffi, Hasan Ayub and Dr. Ahmad al Assal. 

Then I spoke on the topic in a lecture in Minna in the General Guidance Center 
during the Hajj season where there were gathered more than one hundred scholars from 
the entire Islamic world. I said to them: "Agreed are the Salaf, the Pious Predecessors, all 
people of understanding, and the MM/za(iiY/zeen thatin all ages of Islam: "That if a piece 
of Mushm land the size of a hand span is infringed upon, then jihad becomes Fard Ayn 
(global obHgation) on every MusHm male and female, where the child shall march 
forward without the permission of its parents and the wife without the permission of the 

"I decided in the presence of the Amir of the Mujahideen (Sayyaf) and by my time 
of three years spent in the Afghani jihad that, the jihad in Afghanistan needs men. So 
whoever has an objection from you O Ulama then let him raise it". And there was not one 
objection. On the contrary, Dr. Sheikh Idriss said "Oh my brother! there is no difference 
of opinion in this matter". 

So finally, I published this Fatwa. Maybe Allah will cause it to be useful for us in 
this world and the next, and for all Muslims. 

Dr. Abdullah Azzam 


Letter from Sheikh Mohammed Najeeb al Mu'ti 

All praise be to Allah and may His peace and blessings be upon his messenger, 
upon his family, companions and whoever follows him. 

Jihad in Allah's cause is to achieve martyrdom, about which Allah has given the 
good news of their election with his blessed words " ...and that He may take martyrs 
from among you" (Al Imran: 140). It is a progression from one abode to another. From 
a problematic, deceptive and unjust life to a life of happiness and pleasure. 

On this topic the generous, the mujahid, the courageous, the wise, Dr. Abdullah 
Azzam has written calling to Jihad. Explaining and showing the right agenda providing 
sufficient evidence from Fiqh, hadith and Tafseer. Revising and discussing with proofs, 
causing throat swelling distress in the opposition and a splinter in the eyes of the cowards 
and hypocrites. I say on this topic a few words of Z)a'wa/z to the pathfrom which there 
are no other paths, in this critical moment, to remove the cancer from the Ummah and to 
defend the faith. It is the whole point of this life, that it is lived in the path of Allah and 
His prophet and His Book. That His Ummah may be raised and honored and perpetuated. 
The believer fights jihad for Allah that: if he falls he learns and if he is injured he is 
forgiven for his sins, if he is exiled he is a traveler, if he is imprisoned it is time for him 
for worship, if he lives he will become a leader, if he dies he is a martyr and for him is 
good and more. 

And peace be upon the ones who listen to the call and respond (and if your are 
called to march forward, march forward.) with the mercy and blessing of Allah. 

Mohammed Najeeb al Mu'ti' 

Servant of the Sunnah with the most original chain 

Author of Takmilatu al Majmua Sharhul Muhathab 
Member of the Egyptian Writers Union 

Letter from Sheikh Saeed Hawa 

After hearing this letter from our Sheikh Dr. Abdullah Azzam, I consider this 
Fatwa to be the truth and to it I call the people. 

Saeed Hawa 

Letter from Sheikh Umar Sayyaf 

All praise be to Allah and may his blessings be upon Mohammed, his family, 
companions and whoever follows him. 

and what follows: 

This great Patwa and its advises in the rules of Jihad and of when Jihad becomes 
Fard Ayn was showed to me by my brother in Islam, the Sheikh, the righteous the 
truthful, the mujahid, Dr. Abdullah Azzam. I read all of it and saw it to be the correct 
view, the truth from which there can be no divergence, and that there is no room for 
anyone who has an atom of Iman in his heart but to accept these evidences from the Book 
of Allah, the Sunnah of the prophet (saw), and the consensus of the Ulama. I say, it must 
be propagated, haste carried out in marching forward and fulfilling this Fard without 
hesitation, otherwise one would fall into the description given by Allah: "...But when a 
decisive Soorat (explaining an ordering things) is sent down, and Bghting (Jihad-holy 
war) is mentioned (i.e. ordained) therein, you will see those in whose hearts is a 
disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with a look of one fainting to 
death".(Mohammed: 20). 

May Allah reward the Sheikh, the servant of Allah for his intention and his 

May Allah help us to follow His good pleasure, the truth that jihad now is FardAyn 
and that there is no excuse for anybody. 

Umar Sayyaf 

Grand Chair of the Ulama 

Sana Yemen. 

Letter from Sheikh Abdullah Nassah al Waan 

All praise be to the Lord of the Worlds, and may his peace and blessings be upon 
Mohammed, upon his family and companions who carried the flag of jihad throughout the 
world. And, on those who invite to the truth and on the callers to good until the Last Day. 

The Sheikh Dr. Abdullah Azzam, may Allah protect him, showed me what he had 
written about the rules of jihad today pertaining to Afghanistan, Palestine and other 
countries of the Mushms. I say, and with Allah's help: 

Wherever he went he declared this Fatwa, quoting from the Mathhabs and the 
predecessors, what is correct and true, that any Islamic country occupied by the 
UnbeHevers, as decided by the people of understanding, fighting becomes Fard Ayn upon 
its people. Consequently, the wife will go forward without the permission of her 
husband, and the child without the permission of its parents. Purthermore, jihad will 
remain Fard Ayn upon every country close by until sufficient forces are attained to 
liberate the Muslim countries from the grip of the Unbelievers. If the Unbelievers are not 
beaten back, then, the FardAyn of jihad spreads in the shape of a circle. The nearest to 
the next in nearness. Until, the jihad has become Farfi? A_yn upon the whole earth, the 
destruction of the enemy and their complete expulsion from the Muslim land. Now in this 
time we find many MusHms in all MusHm countries, lazy, ill equipped and idle. So in 
truth, for Afghanistan and Palestine as well as other countries of the MusUms, jihad has 
today become Fard Ayn on everyone until sufficient manpower and money are collected. 

Therefore it is incumbent upon every Muslim today, capable of carrying a weapon, 
to march forward to jihad to aid their MusHm brothers in Afghanistan and in every place 
in need, even though his or her parents do not permit it, until sufficient forces are attained 
and Allah knows best. 

Your brother, 

Abdullah Nassah al Waan 

University ofKing Fahd AbdulAziz 


Defense of the Muslim Lands 

The First Obligation After Iman 

Table of Contents 

Chapter 1: Defense of the Muslim Lands 

Jihad Against the Kuffar is of Two Types 

Opinions of the Mathhabs 

Evidence for the General March and it Justification 

Chapter 2: The Ruling of Pighting in Palestine and Afghanistan 

To Begin With Afghanistan 

Chapter 3: Fard Ayn and Fard Kifaya 

Permission For Parents, Husband and Creditor 

An Example of Fard Ayn and Fard Kifaya 

Permission from Sheikh or Teacher 

Jihad With One's Weahh 

Chapter 4: Big Questions and Important Questions 

Can We ^uhill this Fatwa? 

First Question: Can we apply a general march practically in our time? 

Second Question: Can wefight while we haven 't an Amir? 

Third Question: Can wefight in Afghanistan while Leaders are separated? 

Eourth Question: Does onefight alone ifthe rest stay behind? 

Eifth Question: Do we fight Alongside Muslims that are under acceptable level ofIslamic 

education ? 
Sixth Question: Can we seek helpfrom Kuffar ifwe are weak? 

Revelation of the Order to Fight 

Conditions For Making Peace Treaties With Kuffar. 

Final Word 


Chapter 1 
Defense of the Muslim Lands 

The First Obligation After Iman 

"Thefirst obligation after Iman is the repulsion ofthe enemy aggressor who 
assaults the religion and the worldly affairs " Ibn Taymia 

( i^~ ^i (" ajJj j^ ouyi -^ i—^ji f-^g^ y L^'^ij ^'^1 -i^^ (jjji jjl^i jjjju 

All praise be to Allah, we praise Him, we seek His refuge, and we seek his 
forgiveness. We seek refuge in Him from the evil of our own selves and the evil of our 
deeds. Whomsoever Allah guides there is none to send him astray and whomsoever Allah 
sends astray there is none to guide and I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and 
Mohammed is his servant and messenger. May His blessings be upon him, his family and 

And what follows; 

Allah has chosen this religion to be a mercy for the worlds. He sent the most 
blessed of the messengers to be the last prophet for this religion. To bring it victory by 
the sword and the spear, after he had clearly expounded it with evidences and arguments. 
The Prophet (saw) said in a sahih hadith narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani: "I have been 
raised between the hands of the Hour with the sword, until Allah the Exalted is 
worshipped alone with no associates. He has provided sustenance from beneath the 

shadow of spears and has decreed humihation and behttlement for those who oppose my 
order. And whoever resembles a people, he is of them."ii 

Allah the Exalted, in his wisdom, estabhshed the salvation of humanity by this rule 
of fighting, for the Exalted said: "...and if AUah did not check one set of people by 
means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief. But AUah is full of 
bounty to the Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)." ^^ Hence, Allah the Almighty 
the Majestic has bestowed this judgment as a favor upon mankind, and made it 
unambiguous. In other words, the battle between truth and falsehood is for the 
reformation of mankind, that the truth may be made dominant and good propagated. 
Also, that their practices and places of worship may be safeguarded. Allah the Exalted 
said: "...for had it not been that AUah checks one set of people by means of another, 
monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, wherein the name of AUah is 
mentioned much would surely have been pulled down. Verily AUah will help those 
who help his (cause). Truly, AUah is AU Strong, AU Mighty."i3 

This rule of defense or jihad has occupied many pages in theBook of Allah the 
Almighty the Majestic, to make clear that the truth must have a power to protect it. Eor 
how many times has truth been defeated because of neglect of its possessors, and how 
many falsehoods have been raised by its allies and men wilhng to sacrifice. 

Jihad is built on two main pillars. Patience which reveals bravery of the heart, and 
generosity, by which one spends ones wealth and spirit. Yet, the sacrifice of one's person 
is the greatest generosity, and in the sahih hadith,i4 reported by Ahmad: "Iman is patience 
and generosity". Ibn Taymiya says-- : "The amendment of the children of Adam in their 
rehgion and worldly affairs would be not complete without bravery and generosity. And 
Allah has made it clear that whoever turned away from Jihad by the person, that He would 
replace them with a people who would perform it. "If you march not forth, He will 
punish you with a painful torment and will replace you with another people, and you 
cannot harm Him at all, and AUah is able to do all things."^^ 

The Prophet (saw) also underhned two of the most evil of faults: miserhness, and 
cowardice. These faults lead to the corruption of the soul and deterioration of the society. 
In a sahih hadith'- : "the most evil of what is in a man is niggardliness and cowardice". 
Narrated by Abu Daud and it is sahih. 

^^ Sahih al Jamia al Saghir 2828 by Albani. 
^2 Soorat al Baqarah : 251. 

14 Silsilah al Hadith as Sahih 554 by Albani 

15 Majmua al Patawa 28/157. 

1 7 

Reported by Abu Daud and Bukhari in "Al Tarikh" see Sahih Al Jamia 3603 

There have passed ages when the pious predecessors held fast to this rule of 
fighting and became masters of this world and the teachers of mankind. The Exalted said: 
"And we made from among them (Children of Israel), leaders, giving guidance under 
Our command, when they were patient and used to beUeve with certainty in Our 
Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc..)."i^ 

As the Prophet (saw) has stated in a sahihhadith^^. "^hg fij-st of this f/mma/z was 
reformed with abstinence and certainty of belief, and the last of this Ummah will be 
destroyed by miserliness and longing." Narrated by Ahmad and Tabarani in Al Awsat and 
Al Bahigi. 

Unfortunately, there were generations that succeeded the Muslims who neglected 
the rules of Allah. They forsook their Lord, so He forsook them. They deserted His rules, 
and so they were lost. "Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up 
prayers (i.e. made their prayers to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering 
them perfectly, or by not offering them in their proper fixed times, etc.) and have 
followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell."^^ 

They followed their desires and evil of their deeds was made appealing to them. In 
a sahih hadith- • : "Allah hates every selfish arrogant, rambling in the marketplaces, a 
corpse by night and an ass by day, knowledgeable in worldly affairs yet ignorant of the 
after world." 

One of the most important lost obligations is the forgotten obligation of fighting. 
Because it is absent from the present condition of the Muslims, they have become as 
rubbish of the Aood waters. Just as the Prophet (saw) said: "it is expected that the nations 
will call each other from all horizons, as diners calling each other to feast from a platter of 
food in front of them." A person asked the Prophet (saw) would that be because of our 
small number that day. The Prophet (saw) said, "no, but you will be rubbish like the 
rubbish of Aood water. Allah will put Wahn into your hearts and remove the fear from 
the hearts of your enemies because of your love for the world and your hate of death". In 
another narration it was said: "and what is the Wa/zn O messenger of Allah? He (saw) 
said: "love of the world and the hate for fighting."'' Narrated by Ahmad with a good 
chain. Narrated by Abu Daud with the words "hate for death", and it is a sahih hadith. 

^^ Sooratas Sajdah: 24. 


^^ SooratMaryam: 59. 

2^ Sahih al Jamia as Saghir 1874. 

22 Silsilah al Ahadith as Sahih 958 

Jihad Against the Kuffar is of Two Types 

Offensive Jihad (where the enemy is attacked in his own territory). 

Where the Kuffar are not gathering to fight the Mushms. The fighting becomes 
Fard Kifaya with the minimum requirement of appointing behevers to guard borders, and 
the sending of an army at least once a year to terrorize the enemies of AUah. It is a duty 
of upon the Imam to assemble and send out an army unit into the land of war once or 
twice every year. Moreover, it is the responsibiUty of the MusUm population to assist 
him, and if he does not send an army he is in sin.^^ 

And the Ulama have mentioned that this type of jihad is for maintaining the 
payment of Jizya. The scholars of the principles of rehgion have also said: "Jihad is 
Da'wah with a force, and is obHgatory to perform with all available capabiHties, until 
there remains only Muslims or people who submit to Islam."^^ 

Defensive Jihad 

This is expelling the Kuffar from our land, and it is Fard Ayn, a compulsory duty 
upon all. It is the most important of the compulsory duties and arises in the following 

A) If the Kuffar enter a land of the Muslims. 

B) If the rows meet in battle and they begin to approach each other. 

C) If the Imam calls a person or a people to march forward then they must march. 

23 Haashiyat Bin Aabideen 3/238. 

Hashiyat Ash Shouruni and Ibn al Qasim in Tahfa al Mahtaj ala al Minhaj 9/213. 

D) If the Kuffar capture and imprison a group of Muslims. 

The First Condition: If the Kuffar Enter a Muslim Land. 

In this condition the pious predecessors, those who succeeded them, the Ulama of 
the four Mathhabs (Mahki, Hanafi, Shaffie and Hanbah), the Muhadditheen, and the 
Tafseer commentators, are agreed that in aU Islamic ages, Jihad under this condition 
becomes Fard Ayn upon the Mushms of the land which the Kuffar have attacked and 
upon the Mushms close by, where the children wiU march forth without the permission of 
the parents, the wife without the permission of her husband and the debtor without the 
permission of the creditor. And, if the MusHms of this land cannot expel the Kuffar 
because of lack of forces, because they slacken, are indolent or simply do not act, then the 
Fard Ayn obhgation spreads in the shape of a circle from the nearest to the next nearest. 
If they too slacken or there is again a shortage of manpower, then it is upon the people 
behind them, and on the people behind them, to march forward. This process continues 
until it becomes Fard Ayn upon the whole world. 

Sheikh Ibn Taymia says on this topic: "About the defensive jihad, which is 
repelHng an aggressor, is the most tasking type of jihad. As agreed upon by everyone, it 
is obhgatory to protect the rehgion and what is sacred. The first obhgation after Iman is 
the repulsion of the enemy aggressor who assaults the rehgion and the worldly affairs. 
There are no conditional requirements such as supphes or transport, rather he is fought 
with aU immediate capabihty. The Ulama, our peers and others have spoken about this." 
Ibn Taymia supports his opinion of the absence of the requirement of transport in his 
reply to the Judge who said: "If jihad becomes Far(iA_yn upon the people of acountry, 
one of the requirements, in comparison to Hajj, is that one must have suppHes and a ride 
if the distance is such that one shortens the prayer". Ibn Taymia said: "What the Judge 
has said in comparison to Hajj has not been stated before by anybody and is a weak 
argument. Jihad is obhgatory because it is for the repulsion of the harm of the enemy, 
therefore it has priority over Hijr . For Hijr no transport is considered necessary. Of the 
jihads some take priority. It is furthered in a sahih hadith narrated by Ebaad Bin Asaamat 
that the Prophet (saw) said: "it is upon the MusHm to Hsten and obey in hardship and 
prosperity, in what he Hkes and dishkes, and even if he is not given his rights". 
Therefore, the piUar of the most important of obHgations, is the marching forward in 
times of hardship as well as prosperity. As has been stated, contrary to Hajj, the 
obHgation remains present in times of hardship. And this is in offensive jihad. Soitis 
clear that defensive jihad carries a greater degree of obhgation. To defend the sacred 
things and the reHgion from the aggressor is obHgatory, as agreed upon by everyone. The 

first obligation after Iman is repulsion of the enemy aggressor who assaults the religion 
and the worldly affairs"25. Now we look at the opinions of the four Mathhabs who are all 
in agreement on this point. 

Opinions of the Mathhabs 

Hanafi Fiqh 

Ibn Aabidin said^^ : "Jihad becomes Fard Ayn if the enemy attacks one of the 
borders of the Muslims, and it becomes Fard Ayn upon those close by. For those who are 
far away, it is Fard Kifaya, if their assistance is not required. If they are needed, perhaps 
because those nearby the attack cannot resist the enemy, or are indolent and do not fight 
jihad, then it becomes Far(i A_yn upon those behind them, like the obligation to pray and 
fast. There is no room for them to leave it. If they too are unable, then it becomes Fard 
Ayn upon those behind them, and so on in the same manner until the jihad becomes Fard 
Ayn upon the whole Ummah of Islam from the East to the West". 
And the following have like Fatawa: Al Kassani^^, Ibn Najim^s and Ibn Hammam^^. 

Maliki Fiqh 

In Hashiyat ad Dussugi it is stated: Jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon a surprise attack 
by the enemy. Dussuqi said: "Wherever this happens, jihad immediately becomes Fard 
Ayn upon everybody, even women, slaves and children, and they march out even if their 
guardians, husbands and creditors forbid them to."3o 

From Al Ikhtiyaraat Al Fuqaha by Ibn Taymia followed by Fatawa Kubra 4/608. 
26 Hashiyat Ibn Aabidin 3/238. 
2^7 Bida'y as Sanaiy 7/72. 

28 Al Bahr ar Raa'iq by Ibn Najim 5/191. 

29 Fath al Qadir by Ibn Hammam 5/191. 
Hashiyat ad Dussuqi 2/174. 

Shaffie Fiqh 

In the Nihayat al Mahtaj by Ramli: "If they approach one of our lands and the 
distance between them and us becomes less than the distance permitting the shortening of 
prayers, then the people of that territory must defend it and it becomes Fard Ayn even 
upon the people for whom there is usually no jihad; the poor, the children, the slaves, the 
debtor and the women."^! 

Hanbali Fiqh 

In Al Mughni by Ibn al Qadamah: "Jihad becomes Fard Ayn in three situations: 

1) If the two sides meet in battle and they approach each other. 

2) If the Kuffar enter a land, jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon its people. 

3) If the Imam calls a people to march forward it is obhgatory upon them to 
march forward."^2 

And Ibn Taymia remarked: "If the enemy enters a Mushm land, there is no doubt 
that it is obHgatory for the closest and then the next closest to repel him, because the 
MusUm lands are Hke one land. It is obHgatory to march to the territory even without the 
permission of parents or creditor, and narrations reported by Ahmad are clear on this."^^ 

This situation is known as the General March. 

Eyidence for The General March 
and its Justification 

Allah the Almighty the Majestic says: "March forth, whether you are Ught(being 
healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy(being ill, old and poor), strive hard with your 
wealth and your Uves in the cause of AUah. This is better for you if you but knew."^^ 

31 Nihayat al Mahtaj 8/58. 

32 Al Mughni 8/354. 

33 Al Patawa al Kubra 4/608. 

34 Soorat At Tauba: 41. 

In a preceding verse the arrangement of punishment and the replacement by a 
people who carry Islam, has been mentioned as a recompense for those who do not march 
forward. Allah does not punish except those who leave an obligation or perform 
forbidden acts. "If you march not forth, he will punish you with a painful torment 
and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm him at all and AUah is 
able to do all things."^^ 

Ibn Kathir said: "Allah the Exalted ordered that everybody march forward with the 
Messenger of Allah (saw) (the General March) in the expedition of Tabuk to fight the 
enemies of Allah, the unbelieving Romans of the People of theBook". Bukhari has 
written a chapter in Sahih Bukhari (entitled The Chapter On The Obligation of Marching 
Porward and Whatis Required from Jihad andlntention for It) and quoted this verse". It 
was a general call because it became known to the Muslims that the Romans were 
gathering on the borders of the Arabian Peninsula and were preparing to invade Medina. 
So what is the situation is the Kuffar enter a Muslim country, does not the march forward 
become the ultimate priority?. Abu Talha (ra) said about the Exalted's words:"...light or 
heavy...": "old and young Allah did not listen to anyone's e^cuse".^^ ^nd Hasan al Basri 
said: "in hardship and in ease." 

Ibn Taymia said in Majmua al Fatawa 28/358: "If the enemy intends an attack 
upon the Muslims, then repelling him becomes obligatory upon the population under 
attack as well as the population not under attack. The Exaltedhas said: "...Butif they 
seek your help in reUgion, it is your duty to help them...".^^ As well, the Prophet (saw) 
ordered the assisting of a Muslim in need. Whether or not one is a salaried soldier, and no 
matter what his capabilities, it is an obligation upon everybody with their persons and 
wealth, little or much, riding or on foot. As it was when the enemy attacked Medina in 
the Battle of the Trench, Allah allowed no one to be exempted." 

Az Zuhuri said: "Saeed Bin al Mussayb went on a military expedition and he lost 
one of his eyes. It was said to him: "you are injured". He replied, "Allah has ordered the 
light and the heavy to march forward, therefore if it is not possible for me to fight, I will 
make your numbers seem greater by my presence and I can watch over your things".^^ 

2 Allah Almighty the Majestic says: " ...and light the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, 
idolaters, disbelievers in the oneness of Allah) collectively, as they fight against you 

35 Soorat At Tauba: 39 

36 Mukhtasir Ibn Kathir 2/144. 

37 Soorat Al Anfal: 72. 

38 Al Jamia Li Ahkam al Qur'an 8/150. 

collectively. But know that AUah is with those who are Al Muttaqun^'^.'"^^ Ibn Arabi 
said: "collectively means besieging them from every side and in all possible 

3 Allah Almighty and Majestic says: " And light them until there is no m ore Pitnah 
(disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion 
(worship) will all be for Allah alone (in the whole of the world)..." • ■ The Fitnah means 
Shirk as Ibn Abbas and as Siddi said^^: "When the Kuffar attack and control a country, the 
Ummah is endangered in its religion and it becomes susceptible to doubt in its belief. 
Pighting then becomes an obligation to protect the religion, lives, 'Ard and wealth." 

4 He (saw) has said: "There is no Hijr after the Opening (of Mecca) but there is jihad 
and the intention for it. So if you are called to march forth then march forth". Reported 
by Bukhari. 

It is an obligation to march forth if the Ummah is called to do so, and in the 
situation of an enemy attack. The Ummah is called to march forward to protect its 
religion. The extent of the obligation is related to the need of the Muslims or demand of 
the Imam. As Ibn Hajr has clarified in the explanation of this hadith. 

Al Qurtubi said: " Anyone who is aware of the weakness of the Muslims in the face 
of their enemy, knows that he can reach them and can assist them, it is also upon him to 
march forward."44 

5 Every religion which Allah has revealed safeguards five essential aspects: the religion, 
life, 'Ard, the mind and property. 

Consequently, there must be measures to safeguard these five by any means. So, 
Islam orders repelling the aggressor.'- The aggressor is one who imposes himself with 
violence upon others, seeking their life, their wealth or their 'Ard. 

Al Muttagun: means pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain form all kinds of sins and evil deeds which 
he has forbidden) and love AUah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which he has ordained). 


^^ Jamia Li Ahkam al Qur'an 8/150. 

42sooratAl Anfal:39. 

43 AlQurtubi 2/253. 


45 Jamia al Ahkam 8/150. 

A-The aggressor against 'Ard. 

Even if a Muslim displays aggression against 'Ard, it is obligatory to defend it from 
him by the agreement of the Ulama even if this leads to killing him. 

Accordingly, the Ulama have stated that it is not permitted for a Muslim woman^^ 
to surrender or allow herself to be captured even if she is killed, if she fears for her 

B- Repulsion of the aggressor who attacks property and hfe is obHgatory as agreed 
upon by majority of the Ulama, and corresponds to the consensus of the MaHki and 
Shaffie Mathhabs. Even if this leads to kilhng a MusHm aggressor. In a sahih hadith: 
"Whoever is killed protecting his wealth, he is a martyr. Whoever is killed protecting 
his blood, he is a martyr. Whoever is killedprotecting his family, he is amartyr".^^ 
Hadith sahih narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daud, at Tirmidhi and Nisa'i. 

Al Jassas after coming to knowledge of this hadith, said: "We know of no 
difference of opinion, that if a man bears his sword to another man to kill him unjustly, 
that it is upon the Muslims to kill this aggressor."^^ 

In this situation if the aggressor is killed he will be in the Hellfire, even if he was a 
MusHm. Whereas, if the defender is killed he will be a martyr. This is the ruling for a 
MusHm aggressor, so how will it be if the Kuffar invade a MusHm land, where they would 
oppress and assail the reHgion, 'Ard, Hves and property to the point of disappearance. Is it 
not the foremost obHgation upon the MusHms in this situation to repel this disbeHeving 
aggressor, whether he be alone or a whole nation!? 

6 If the Kuffar use MusHm captives as human shields in front of them in an advance to 
occupy a Muslim land, it remains an obligation to fight the Kuffar even if this leads to the 
killing of the Muslim captives. 

Ibn Taymia said in Ma/mMa a/Fatovva 28/537: "Ifwith the iirMjJarthere are pious 
people from the best of mankind and it is not possible to fight these Kuffar except by 
killing them, then they are to be killed as well. The leading scholars are in accord that if 
the Kuffar use Muslim captives as human shields, and there is fear for the rest of the 
Muslims if they are not fought, then it is permitted to shoot them aiming the Kuffar. One 
of the sayings of the scholars is that, even if we do not fear for the Muslims in general, it 
is permissible to shoot the Muslim captives". And on pg.45 he said: "The 5««««/? and 

Women are included in the defenition of the Arabic word "Ard". 

47 Hashiyat Ibn Abidin 5/383, Zila'i 6/1 10, Muwahib al Jaleel 6/323, Tafa al Majtaj 4/124, al Inna' 4/290, ar Rawda al Bahi 
2/371, al Bahr az Zukhar 6/268 and Taj al Arus Sahih al Jamia al Saghir by Albani 6321. 

"^^ Ahkam al Qur'an by Jasssas 1/2402. 

Ijma agree that if the aggression of a Muslim aggressor cannot be stopped except by 
kilhng him, then he must be kiUed, even if his transgression is over a fraction of a dinar. 
Because, in a sahih hadith: "whoever is killed protecting his wealth, he is a martyr"." 

And this is because the protection of the remaining Mushms from Pitnah and Shirk, 
and the protection of the rehgion, 'Ard and wealth are more of a priority than a small 
number of MusHms captives in the hands of the Kuffar. 

7 The fighting of the renegade MusHm group. 

Allah the Exalted has said: " And if two parties or groups among the believers 
fall into Bghting, then make peace between both, but if one of them rebels against the 
other, then fight you (all) against the one that which rebels till it complies with the 
command of AUah; then if it complies, then make reconciUation between them justly, 
and be equitable. Verily! AUah loves those who are equitable."49 If Allah had made 
it an obHgation to fight the renegade MusHm group, to unify the MusHms and protect 
their reHgion, 'Ard and wealth, then, what will the ruHng be for fighting the aggressing 
Kaffir nation? Does it not take priority? 

o The ruHng for the one who wages war. 

The Almighty the Majestic says: "The recompense of those who wage war 
against AUah and His messenger and do mischiefin the land is only that they shallbe 
kiUed or crucified or their hands and feetbe cutofffrom the opposite sides,or exiled 
from the land. That is their disgrace in this w orld, and a great torm ent is theirs in 
the hereafter."5o 

This is the ruling appHed on the one who wages war from among the Muslims. He 
spreads distress and corruption in the land and he infringes upon wealth and 'Ard. This is 
the ruHng which the Messenger of Allah (saw) carried out upon the sick Bedouins who 
turned apostate as has been reported in the Sahihs.^^ 

What should be the treatment of the Kaffir nation that brings calamity upon the 
people, their reHgion, their wealth and their 'Ard'? Is not the first obHgation upon the 
Muslims to fight them? 

These are some of the evidences and reasons that corroborate the ruHng on the 
General March when the Kuffar enter a Muslim land. 

"^^ Soorat Al Hujurat: 9. 

See al Fatha al Rabbani .Tarteeb Masnad al Imam Ahmad ash Shaybani by Ahmad Abdur Rahman al Banal 8/128. 

Yerily, the repelling of the Kaffir enemy is the most important obligation after 
Iman, as said Ibn Taymia: "The first obligation after Iman is the repulsion of the enemy 
aggressor who assaults the rehgion and the worldly affairs". 

\ , 

I l) jJjij L)-iji L)i-U jjij $,L~Ujij JUrjJl ^y» ^juij>..,^.".«^U AJJI A^ L? OjIJUj *^ jt-So La J 
Iji-s^ di3-^ ^ U Jjt^^J LJj di3-Xj ^ U Jjt^^J L^I i IJiJi Aj^i oJu& ^ Ljsr^I Ljj 


" And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of AUah, and for those 
weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: 
"Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us 
from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help." 

An Nisa: 75. 

Chapter 2 
The Ruling of Fighting in 
Palestine and Afghanistan 

It has been made clear in the previous chapter that if the Kuffar infringe upon a 
hand span of Mushm land, jihad becomes Fard Ayn for its people and for those near by. 
If they fail to repel the Kuffar due to lack of resources or due to indolence, then the 
Fara'id of jihad spreads to those behind, and carries on spreading in this process, until the 
jihad is Fard Ayn upon the whole earth from the East to the West. 

In this condition, no permission is required from the husband for the wife, the 
parent for the child, the creditor for the debtor. 

1- The sin is suspended to the necks of all MusHms as long as any hand span of land 
that was Islamic is in the hands of the Kuffar. 

2- The sin is measured according to one's authority or capabiHties. The sin for the 
Ulama, leaders, and Da'i , who are well known in their communities, is greater than for 
the ordinary civihan. 

3- The sin upon this present generation, for not advancing towards Afghanistan, 
Palestine, the Phihppines, Kashmir, Lebanon, Chad, Eritria etc, is greater than the sin 
inherited from the loss of the lands which have previously fallen into the possession of 
the Kuffar. We have to concentrate our efforts on Afghanistan and Palestine now, 
because they have become our foremost problems. Moreover, our occupying enemies 
are very deceptive and execute programs to extend their power in these regions. If we 
were to resolve these dilemma, we wouldresolve a great deal of complications. Their 
protection is the protection for the whole area. 

To Begin With Afghanistan 

Whoever can, from among the Arabs, fight jihad in Palestine, then he must start 
there. And, if he is not capable, then he must set out for Afghanistan. For the rest of the 
Muslims, I believe they should start their jihadin Afghanistan. It is our opinion that we 
should begin with Afghanistan before Palestine, not because Afghanistan is more 
important than Palestine, not at all, Palestine is the foremost Islamic problem. It is the 
heart of the Islamic world, and it is a blessed land but, there are some reasons which make 
Afghanistan the starting point. 

1- The battles in Afghanistan are still raging and have reached a level of intensity, the 
like of which have not been witnessed in the mountains ranges of Hindu Kush, nor 
in recent Islamic history. 

2- The Islamic Aag being raised in Afghanistan is clear: 

"iii Ji^j j^ iii ^\ 4ii ^ " 

and the aim is clear "to make Allah's words uppermost". The second article in the 
constitution of Itihad Islamy consisting of Afghani Mujahideen is: "The goal of this 
unification is to bring forth an Islamic state in Afghanistan." And in the third 
article it states: "Our goal is taken from the words of the Exalted: "...the command 
(or the judgment) is for none but Allah..."^^ The rule is solely for the Lord of the 

3- The Islamists have been the first to take control of the battles in Afghanistan. Those 
who lead the jihad in Afghanistan are the sons of the Islamic movement, the Ulama 
and Hafiz of Qur'an. While, in Palestine the leadership has been appropriated by a 
variety of people, of them sincere Muslims, communists, nationalists and modernist 
Muslims. Together they have hoisted the banner of a secular state. 

4- The situation in Afghanistan is still in the hands of the mujahideen. They continue 
to refuse help from any Kaffir country, while Palestine depends completely on the 
Soviet Union, who withheld their help in Palestine's time of dire need. They were 
left to face their predicament by themselves in front of the world conspiracy. The 
situation has become a game in the hands of the great powers. Gambling with the 
land, the people and the 'Ard of Palestine, pursuing them even into the Arab states, 
until their military power is exhausted. 

5- There are more than SOOOkms of open border in Afghanistan and regions of tribes 
not under political inAuence. This forms a protective shield for mujahideen. 
However, in Palestine the situation is entirely different. The borders are closed, 
their hands are bound, the eyes of the authorities spy from all sides for anyone who 
attempts to infiltrate its borders to kill the Jews. 

Shaffie said in Al Umm 4/177: "If there is a situation of different enemies, 
one is more threatening and more frightening than the others, the Imam engages the 
more frightening and threatening. This is acceptable, even if his home is further 


away. The reason being, Insha Allah, in this manner you prove that you are not 
afraid, and make an example for the others. This decision is because of necessity, 
being that what is permitted in times of necessity is not permitted in other times. 
This happened in the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw) when he heard that 
Harith Abi Dirar was gathering his forces to fight him. He (saw) attacked him, 
though there was an enemy closer to him. Also, when he was informed that Khalid 
Bin Abi Sufian Ibn Shuh had gathered a force, he sent Ibn Annis who killed him, 
thus engaging him though there were closer enemies. 

The people of Afghanistan are renowned for their strength and pride. It seems as if 
the Glorified and Exalted prepared the mountains and the land there especially for 

I J aJILj jjjji?»^ j AiJuJl (i-^J^ Owlnj ■S\} j iJjJtJ ^ IwL/sli \yu^ j Lj i \^ jf- jLS jJ 

42 Sj^I 2jjJt Ijy^ { . jjjjilxj (,-fJl Am aIJI j (r4-^v>ijl jjXi4o (,.Xjt^ L?r^ LjtJsLl^l 

Had it been a near gain (booty in front of them) and an easy journey, 
they would have followed you, but the distance (Tabuk expedition) was 
long for them, and they would swear by AUah, "If we only could, we 
would certainly have come forth with you." They destroy their own 
selves, and AUah knows that they are Uars. 

Soorat At Tauba, verse 42. 

Chapter 3 
Fard Ayn and Fard Kifaya 

Fard Ayn 

It is the Fard that is a compulsory duty on every single Muslim to perform like 
praying or fasting. 

Fard Kifaya 

It is the Fard that if performed by some, the obhgation ^aUs from the rest. The 
meaning of Fard Kifaya, is that if there are not enough people that respond to it, then all 
the people are in sin. If a sufficient amount of people respond, the obhgation falls from 
the rest. The call for it in the beginning is Hke the call for estabhshing a Fard Ayn, but it 
differs in that a Fard Kifaya is absolved by the performance of some of the people. But a 
Fard Ayn is not absolved by any number of people performing it. • ■ That is why Fakhr ar 
Razi defined Fard Kifaya as the obHgation that is carried out without looking to the souls 
of the ones who perform it. 

Shaffie said: "A Fard Kifaya is a command directed towards everyone seeking only 
a response from some"." The definition agreed upon by the majority of scholars, of them 
Ibn Hajib, al Amdi and Ibn Abdu Shakur, state that Fard Kifaya is obligatory upon 
everyone, but is absolved upon the performance of some. People are now arguing about 
the jihad ruling, and they consider it as Fard Kifaya, that means it is obUgatory upon 
everyone, but is absolved when some perform it. According to this opinion, the Fard of 
jihad in Afghanistan is, Fard Kifaya. Rather, it is obligatory upon all MusHms on the 
earth until the completion of this Fard, which is the expulsion of the Russians and 
communists from Afghanistan. The sin is suspended to the necks of all the people until 
the expulsion of all the communists is complete. Because the Fard, or obligation, in the 
condition of an attack by the Kuffar is: the expulsion of the Kuffar from the Muslim land. 

Some people from far away say, "jihad in Afghanistan needs money and not men". 
This talk is bare of truth, because the interval of approximately six years of Russian 
aggression against Afghanistan, the migration of 5 milHon to the outside, and 7 million 
refugees inside, scattered in mountains and in the wilderness, is enough to answer this 

53 Al Mughni by Ibn Qadamah 8/345. 

see Al Mahsool by ar Rasi and Tahqiq by Dr. Taha Jabiraj sec.2 31 ^y. 

As Sayyaf said: "14 countries, the first of them the Soviet Union, followedby the 
Warsaw Pact and the international communists, are unified in their attack against us. 
While the Muslims in the Muslim world are still arguing: "is jihad in Afghanistan Fard 
Ayn or Fard KifayaT So let the Muslims wait until the last man becomes Shaheed, then 
they will believe that jihad is FardAyn, while its known that up to now there have already 
been nearly one and a half million Shuhada. 

The Afghani people say: "The presence of one Arab among us is more loved by us 
than one million dollars." 

The scholar Sayyaf in a call to the Ulama and Da'i in Jihad magazine, ninth issue: 

We quote: 

All praise be to Allah and may peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of 
Allah, upon his family, companions and whoever is guided by his guidance. 
And what follows: 

You are aware that jihad in Afghanistan, began and still continues to raise the 
words of Allah, and to establish a state founded on the Qur'an. To realize this objective 
we need mujahideen who properly understand Islam and who are can safeguard the 
principles of true Islamic jihad, therefore we needDa'/ and Ulama, to continually teach 
and instruct. You should know that there have already been many tutors and scholars 
martyred in the fields of jihad in Afghanistan. That is why we are in great need of men 
who are capable of teaching, tutoring and directing in mujahideen schools, training 
camps, refugee camps and battle fronts until Allah the Exalted helps us to bring about our 
expected our aims. We need scholars and tutors more than any other professionals or 
specialists. May Allah assist us and you in serving Islam and the Muslims. 

Your Brother 

Abdur Rabbir Rassool Sayyaf. 
Baktiya Jaji 
3rdShawall405 A.H.. 

Permission From Parents, Husband and Creditor. 

The need for permission is related to the status of the enemy: 

1) If the enemy is inside his country, he is not gathering around borders, there is no 
effect on the Muslim country, and borders are full of soldiers, then jihad in such a 
situation is only Fard Kifaya, and permission is required. This is because obedience to 
parents and husband is Fard Ayn and jihad is merely Fard Kifaya. Fard Ayn is 
advanced over Fard Kifaya. 

2) If the enemy attack a Muslim border or enter any Islamic land, then as we mentioned 
before, jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon the entire population of the country and all 
around it. In this situation permission is not required. There is no permission for 
anyone from the other, even the child goes out without the permission of his parents, 
the wife without the permission of her husband, and the debtor without the permission 
of his creditor. 

The situation of the permission from parents and husband not being required is 
sustained until the enemy is expelled from the Muslim land, or when there is the 
accumulation of sufficient numbers to expel the enemy even if all the Muslims in the 
earth are assembled. 

Jihad, when it is Fard Ayn, takes precedence over the obedience to parents, which 
is also Fard Ayn. Because, jihad is the protection of the religion, and obedience to 
parents, is caring for the individual. That is, jihad (with the parents grief and distress it 
may entail) is protection of the religion which has priority over the protection of the 
individual. Moreover, Jihad itself is the destruction of the mujahid's self if he is martyred. 
In which case the protection of the religion is assured. While it is not certain that one's 
parents would be distressed. The certain takes precedence over the uncertain. 

An Example of Fard Ayn and Fard Kifaya 

For instance, some people are walking along the sea shore and amongst them is a 
group of good swimmers. They see a child about to drown. It shouts "save me!", and 
nobody moves towards him. One of the swimmers wants to move to save him but his 
father forbids him. Can any scholar in this day and time say that he must obey his father 
and let the child drown? 

This is the example of Afghanistan today. She is crying out for help, her children 
are being slaughtered, her women are being raped, the innocent are killed and their 
corpses scattered, and when sincere young men want to move to save and assist them they 
are criticized and blamed: "how could you leave without your parents' permission?" 

Saving the drowning child is Fard on all the swimmers who witness him. Before 
anyone moves there is a call for all to save him. If someone moves to save him, the sin 
falls from the rest. But, if no one moves, all the swimmers are in sin. 

No permission is required before anyone moves, even if the parents forbid the son 
to save the drowner, they must not be obeyed. Because, the call in the beginning for a 
Fard Kifaya is the same as the call for a Farfi? Ajn. The difference emerges only after. If 
some answer the call, then the sin falls from the rest. If none respond, all are in sin. 

Ibn Taymia said: "If the enemy attacks, there is no room for argument. In fact 
defense of their onslaught on religion, lives and all things held dear is obligatory as 
agreed upon by aH"^^. 

The evidence for the permission from parents in Fard Kifaya and the absence of 
permission in Fard Ayn is taken from the reconciliation of two hadith: 

First: A hadith reported by Bukhari. Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al Aas (ra) said: "A man 
came to the Prophet (saw) asking his permission for jihad. He said, "are yourparents 
alive". He answered yes. He said, "in them is your jihad". 

Second: Ibn Haban narrated from Abdullah Ibn Amr (ra)^^: "A man came to the 
Prophet (saw) and asked him about the best deed. He said, "the prayer". He said, "and 
what?". He said, "jihad". He said, "I have two parents". He said, "I order you good by 
them". He said, "by the One who sent you with the truth I will fight jihad and leave 
them". He said, "you know best".^^ 

Al Hafiz said: "It is understood that here jihad was Fard Ayn in order to reconcile 
the two (hadith)."58 

Permission From the Sheikh and Tutor 

There is no narration that we know of from any of the earlier scholars or 
predecessors saying that the sheikh or tutor has the right to give permission to his pupil 
for acts of worship, whether they are Fard Kifaya or Fard Ayn. Whoever says otherwise, 
let him bring forward an item from the Shariah or a clear evidence. Every Muslim must 

55 Al Patawa al Kubra 4/607. 

56 seePathalBari 6/105. 

Fath al Bari 6/106 verified by Ibn Haban and it is sahih and deyalued by al Hafiz in Al Fath, he said it was hasan or sahih. 
58 FathalBari 6/106. 

set out for jihad without asking permission from his sheikh or tutor. The permission from 
the Lord of the Worlds takes precedence, and He has already given permission. More 
than that, he has obligated it. 

Ibn Hubayra said: "Of the plots of the Shaytaan is to raise false gods in 
misinterpretations to make idols worshipped besides Allah. When the truth is made 
evident he suggests: "This is not the practice of our Mathhab. " Thus, remaining loyal to 
one he esteems and preferring him to the truth. 

If this pupil wants to study engineering, medicine or history in a western country or 
in America, where the Fitnah is like a black night, where temptation crashes around him 
hke waves and the oceans of aAamed desires are astir. I say, if this pupil leaves without 
permission of his sheikh, he or any others would not be angered. But if he goes out for 
Ribatt or jihad, you find the tongues directed towards him from every side saying: "How 
can he go out without permission?" The sheikh failed to recall the noble words of the 
Prophet (saw): "One night of guard duty in the cause of Allah the Exalted is better than a 
thousand nights stood in prayer and days of fasting."59 

In sahih Muslim: "Ribatt one day and one night is better than a month of fasting 
and praying. If he dies, his works continue on after him, his sustenance is provided for, 
and he is safe from the Pittan.^^"^'^ And: "A march by morning in the cause of Allah, or 
an afternoon march, is better than the world and what is in it." Agreed upon. 

It is upon the sheikh and his pupil to rush towards deeds and hasten towards good, 
and not to let the advice of the Messenger of Allah (saw) escape them: "Take opportunity 
of five before five: your life before your death, your health before your sickness, your 
spare time before you are occupied, your youth before your old age and your wealth 
before your poverty." •■ It is also upon them to pay close attention to the sahih hadith: "To 
stand one hour in the battle Hne in the cause of Allah is better than sixty years of night 
prayer." Reported by Ahmad, al Hakim and ad Darami.^^ Ash Shaffie said: "The 
MusHms are agreed that if a Sunnah of the prophet is made clear to you, it is not 
permitted to leave it upon the saying of anyone." 

Jihad With One's Wealth 

Narrated by Ibn Maja, at Tabarani, al Bahiqi, Sahih al Hakim, aknowledged by ath Thahabi, and al Hafiz said its chain of 
narration is hasan, see al Fath al Rabbani 10/95. 

Pittan: who causes the gmal Pitnah, i.e. questioning in the grave or ad Dajjal (the Antichrist) 
^^ Mukhtassir Muslim 1075. 

Narrated by al Hakim and al Bahiqi and it is sahih. See Sahih al Jamia as Sahih by Albani 1088. 
"^ Sahih al Jamia as Saghir by Albani 4305. 

There is no doubt that jihad by one's person is superior to jihad by one's wealth. 
Consequently, the rich in the time of the Prophet (saw), were not excused from 
participating with their persons, such as Uthman and Abdur Rahman Ibn Auf (ra). 
Because, the purification of the soul and the evolution of the spirit, is lifted to great 
heights in the midst of the battle. That is why the Prophet (saw) advised one of his 
companions in these words: "...hold to jihad, because itis the monasticism of Islam."^^ 
Hadith sahih reported by Ahmad. 

That is why, when the Prophet (saw) was asked: "is a person put to trial in his 
grave?" He said, "the Aashing of swords above his head is sufficient trial for him."^^ 
Hadith sahih, reported by Nasa'i. 

Purthermore, the Prophet (saw) warned about being preoccupied with the world 
away from jihad. He once pointed to a plough and said: "It does not enter a people's 
homestead except that Allah enters humiliation with it".^^ Reported by Bukhari in his 
Sahih. Also, in sahih hadith: "If you practiced Tabaiya alAiniya (i.e. selling goods to a 
person for a certain price and then buying them back from him for a far lesser price), 
followed the tails of cows, satisfied yourselves with agriculture, and abandoned jihad, 
Allah will cover you with humiliation and will not remove it until you return to your 
religion."67 Reported by Abu Daud. 

Similarly, in the sahih hadith: "Do not take Day'at, it will make you satisfied with 
the life of this worW.^s Reported by at Tirmithi. Daj 'aHs real estate or craft. In this 
hadith the Messenger of Allah (saw) has listed the distractions of the world and the 
sources of preoccupation: agriculture, trading with interest and the con of A/ Am/_ya, 
animal farming, industry and craft (Day'at). To be preoccupied with these, in the time 
when Islam is being subjected to confrontation in the battle field, verging on eradication, 
is considered Harram and a tremendous sin according to the Shariah. 

The jihad by one's wealth is obligatory if the mujahideen are in need of it, Far(i 
upon women and children's wealth, even if jihad is Fard Kifaya, as decided by Ibn 
Taymia.69 That is why it is forbidden upon the people to make savings in the time of 
need. Ibn Taymia was asked the question: "we have only sufficient moneys to feed the 
starving, or to fund the jihad, which would otherwise suffer". He answered, "We give 

""^ Sahih al Jamia as Saghir by Albani 4305. 
"^ Sahih al Jamia as Saghir by Albani 4359. 
66 Silsilah al Ahadith as Sahih by Albani 10. 
^■7 Silsilah al Ahadith as Sahih by Albani 11. 

68 Silsilah al Ahadith as Sahih by Albani 12. 

69 Al Patawa al Kubra 4/608. 

priority to tlie jihad, even if the starving must lose their hves. As in the case of the human 

shield, in which they are inadvertently killed by our hands, here they die by Allah's 

Al Qurtubi said^^ : The scholars are in agreement that if any need befalls the 
MusHms, after they have paid out the Zakat, they are required to spend from their own 
resources to take care of that need". Malik said-- : "It is obHgatory upon the people to pay 
the ransom on those taken hostage from among them, even if it exhausts their wealth. 
This too is agreed upon." 

The protection of the religion takes precedence over the protection of individuals, 
the protection of individuals takes precedence over the protection of wealth. Therefore 
the wealth of the rich is not more valuable than the blood of mujahideen. 

Let the rich beware and take heed of the law of Allah concerning their wealth, 
while jihad is in great need of that wealth, as is the rehgion of the Muslims and their 
countries which are on the brink of disappearance. The rich are drowning in their desires 
yet, if they could just abstain for one day from their desires, and hold back their hands 
from wasting money on triviaHties, and instead direct it to mujahideen in Afghanistan, 
whose feet are lacerated by the ice and who are dying from the cold. They find no food 
for their day nor any ammunition with which to defend their blood. 

I say, if the rich were to direct what they waste in one day to the Afghani 
mujahideen, their money, by the permission of Allah, would help to cause a great leap 
forward towards victory. The major scholars, the foremost among them, the Honorable 
Sheikh Abdul Aziz Bin Bazz, have passed a Fatwa which declares that directing the Zakat 
to the Afghani mujahideen is of the finest deeds and the best charity. 


ne : Jihad by your person is Fard Ayn upon every MusUm in the earth. 

Two: No permission for one from another for Jihad and no permission from the 
parents for the child. 

'^O Al Patawa al Kubra 4/608. 

■71 Al Qurtubi 2/242. 
■72 Al Qurtubi 2/242. 

Three: Jihad by your wealth is Fard Ayn and it is Harram to make savings while 
the jihad is in need of the Mushms' money. 

Four: Neglecting the jihad is Hke abandoning fasting and praying, more than that, 
neglecting the jihad is worse in these days. We quote from Ibn Rushd: "It 
is agreed that when jihad becomes PardAyn it takes precedence over the 
Fard of Hajj." 

Chapter 4 

Big Questions 

Important Questions 

Can we fulfill this Fatwa in our time? 

Someone might say after all this: We already know that jihad with your person 
today is PardAyn and that jihad is now obhgatory hke prayer and fasting, moreover, that 
jihad by your person takes precedence over prayer and fasting by the saying of Ibn 
Taymia: "The first obHgation after Iman is the repulsion of the enemy aggressor who 
assaults the rehgion and the worldly affairs".^3 

The prayer may be delayed, joined together, its Rakat's reduced or it's positions 
altered when in jihad. In the two Sahih: "Allah filled their homes and their graves with 
fire as they kept us busy from our middle prayer until the sun disappeared". 

And, the mujahid can break his fast in Ramadan, as reported by Muslim, that the 
Messenger of Allah (saw) broke his fast on his way to open Mecca and said: "You are 
going to meet your enemy in the morning. Breaking your fast makes you stronger, 
therefore, break your fasts". 

'^^ Al Patawa al Kubra 4/608. 

It has been made clear to us that no permission is required for anyone when jihad is 
Fard Ayn, as no permission is required from the father, the sheikh or the master for the 
obligatory morning prayer before the rising of the sun. 

Similarly, no permission is required in obligatory jihad. Let us say, if the father 
and the son slept in one place, and the son wanted to pray Fajr but his father sleeps. Does 
anyone suggest that the son must take permission from his father to pray the obligatory 
prayer? Suppose that the father forbid his son from performing the prayer for some 
reason or other, perhaps not to disturb the other people who are sleeping (who don't pray 
Fajr) or because his father does not want to pray. Does the son obey his father? The 
answer is clear: "Obedience is in what isright".^'^ Agreedupon, Sahih alJamia 2323. 
"There is no obedience to the creation in disobedience to the Creator". Hadith sahih 
reported by Ahmad and al Hakim. "There is no obedience to one who obeys not Allah".^^ 
Hadith sahih reported by Ahmad. Neglecting jihad is a sin, and there is no obedience to 
the creation in disobedience to the Creator. 

About Permission 

The matter of permission: To clarify this question we say, with the assistance of Allah, 
the companions (ra) never sought permission from the Messenger of Allah (saw) once the 
flag was raised and the Ummah was called forth. But the seeking of permission and 
consultation from the Messenger of Allah (saw), was sought if they had personally 
decided to go out or after they had registered their names for an expedition. In the sahih 
hadith reported by Ahmad and Nasa'i from Muawiya Ibn Jahima as Salmi: "Jahima came 
to the prophet and said, "Oh! Messenger of Allah (saw) I want to join an expedition and I 
came to consult you". He said, "do you have a mother?" He said yes. He said, "stay with 
her for Paradise is at her feet".^6 

In another narration: "I have been registered for such and such an expedition" i.e."I 
signed up". This was at a time when jihad was Fard Kifaya. 

If jihad becomes Fard Ayn after the call, to ask permission of the Prophet (saw) 
would be a clear sign of hypocrisy. For the decisive verses have been revealed: "Those 
who beUeve in AUah and the Last Day would not ask your leave to be exempted from 
fighting with their properties and their Uves, and AUah is the all knower of A/ 

Sahih al Jamia as Saghir by Albani 3967. 
'^ Sahih al Jamia as Saghir by Albani 7397. 
'^^ Nayl al Autar 8/37. 

Muttaqun^^. It is only those who believe not in Allah and the Last Day and whose 
hearts are in doubt that ask your leave (to be exempted from jihad). So in their 
doubts they waver."78 

With reference to the Rightly Guided Caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ah 
(ra), we don't know of the companions or predecessors asking their permission. It was not 
the case that every single one who wanted to join an expedition or to fight jihad, came to 
Abu Bakr for his permission. The important thing is that the flag must be raised, and 
troops sent out. 

Purthermore, with reference to Amirul Mu 'mineen after the Cahphs, we don't know 
of anyone who wanted to make Ribatt or fight in jihad who was taking authorization from 
them. Neither do we know of any Mushm in Islamic history being punished by an Amir 
for participating in jihad or an expedition without authorization. Actually, authorization 
was sought from the commander in the battle field during the expedition or attack in order 
to maintain organization and not to spoil the plan of the Mushms. 

Some MusHm scholars Hke Auza'i specified that authorization from the Imam is 
only for soldiers salaried by the state. Ar Ramh said in Nihayat al Mahtaj 8/60: "To join 
an expedition without authorization from the Imam or his second in command is a hated 
thing, except under the following three conditions: 

1- If seeking permission jeopardizes the objectives. 

2- If the Imam incorrectly calls off the expedition. 

3- If one thinks he will be unjustly or incorrectly refused authorization. Confirmed by 

We point out that all this is when jihad is Fard Kifaya. But, if jihad becomes Fard 
Ayn there is no permission. Ibn Rushd said: "The Imam must be obeyed even if he is 
unjust. As long as he does not order a sin. Porbidding from the jihad which is Fard Ayn 
is a sin.^9 

We continue declaring this case: permission is required in Fard Kifaya, only after 
sufficient numbers of mujahideen have been assembled to be able to fulfill the Fard. 
Before this sufficiency is attained, the call is directed to all and is obHgatory upon all, but 
is absolved by the performance of some. There is no difference between Fard Kifaya and 
Fard Ayn before the sufficiency (Kifaya) is met. 


Pious God-fearing people. 
'^^ Soorat At Tauba 44,45. 
'^^ see Fath al 'Ali al Malik by Sheikh 'AUsh 1/390. 

Before the sufficiency, there is no seeking of permission. Permission is sought for 
only after it is known from the Mushms in the battle field that the required numbers have 
been assembled to enable the fulfillment of the Fard. 

After all this someone may say: 

We know that jihad is PardAyn and there is no permission whatsoever from any 
for jihad, yet there are still some important questions: 

First Question 

How can we apply the General March practically in our time ? 

Some people feel that the General March as it is required in Islam, that the woman 
leaves without her husband's permission, and the son without his father's permission, is 
very demanding for the following reasons: 

1- Any Islamic territory is not large enough for one thousandth of all the thousands of 

2- This leads to the disruption of the Islamic education process which is considered to be 

the hope, with Allah's permission, for saving the Ummah. 

3- This leads to a process of evacuation of Islamic areas, that if everyone left for jihad in 
Palestine or Afghanistan, they would leave an openings for Communists, Bathists, 
NationaHsts and Secularist. 


If only the MusHms would apply their Lord's command and implement the laws of 
their Shariah concerning the General March for just one week in Palestine, Palestine 
would be completely purified of Jews. Similarly, the situation in Afghanistan would not 
last long if only the Ummah would march forward. Moreover, there would not be an 
absence of Da'i, nor would their homes be destroyed by the going out of their women. 
Instead, in every instance, we wait and we weep. We watch the Islamic region as it falls 
under the domination of the Kuffar, until it is swallowed whole, then we finally eulogize 
with much sighing and streaming tears. 

Unfortunately, when we think about Islam we think nationahstically. We fail to let 
our vision pass beyond geographic borders that have been drawn up for us by the Kuffar. 

The son of the town of Ar Ramsa in Jordan on the Syrian border senses a belonging 
and thinks Islamically about the son of Aqaba in Jordan, six hundred kilometers away, 
more than he does about the son of Dara, a Syrian town, ten kilometers from Ar Ramsa. 

In spite of the fact that the son of Dara and the son of Aqaba are both Muslim 
worshippers, though the son of Dara is more religious than the son of Jordanian Aqaba. 

Second Question 

Can we fight jihad while we haven't an Amir? 

Yes we fight, and we haven't an Amir. None has said that the absence of a 
community of Muslims under an Amir cancels the Fard of jihad. In fact we have seen 
Muslims at the time of the Crusades and during the Tar-tar invasions fighting with 
different Amir's. In Halab (in Syria) there was an Amir, in Damascus there was an Amir, 
and in Egypt there was more than one Amir. Some of these even asked help from 
Christians against their brother Amir, as what happened when Shawar asked help from 
Christians against another Amir , Dar Gham, in Egypt. 

Not one of the scholars has said that such a situation and such corruption cancels 
the obligation of jihad for the defense of the Muslim lands. On the contrary it multiplies 
their duty. The same thing happened in Andalusia, as the poets said: 

"They were divided into sects, each in their places, 
Each place an Amir and each its pulpit" 
And another wrote, 

"That which made me dispair of Andalusia, were the king 's titles, 

Great titles ofwhich they were not worthy, 

Like the cat who mimics the lion by puffing himself up" 

Not one of the scholars has said that there is no jihad under these conditions, in 
fact, the scholars were themselves in the front hnes of Andalusia. 

The battle may be void of a legitimate commander appointed by the Amir. As it 
was on the Day of Mu'tah. KhaUd Bin Wahd stood up and raised the flag, that by him, 
Allah saved the Mushm army. And, for this he was commended by the Prophet (saw). 

Maybe the Imam or theAmir al Mu'mineen is not present, this does not annul the 
obHgation of fighting and the defense of the MusUm lands. We do not wait for the 
CaUphate to be restored. Because, the CaHphate does not return through abstract theories, 
amassed knowledge and studying. Rather, jihad is the right way to reform the divided 
authorities to the ultimate authority of the Cahphate. 

The mujahideen choose their Amir for jihad from amongst themselves. He 
organizes them and unifies their efforts and makes the strong support the weak. In a sahih 
hadith from Uqbah Bin Amar, who was amongst the to-be-mentioned party, said: "The 
Prophet (saw) sent out a party and he chose from amongst them a swordsman (leader). 
When he returned he said, "I have not seen the hke of when the Prophet (saw) blamed us. 
He said, "are you unable that if I send a man and he fails to apply my order to replace him 
with one who appHes my order."^^ 

The Messenger of Allah (saw) encouraged them to change the Amir of the party 
even if he was given the flag by the noble hand of the Prophet himself . Sohowisitif 
there is no Amir from the beginning? Of the most critical situations requiring an Amir is 
that of wartime. 

Ibn Qadama said in Al Mughni 8/253: "The absence of an Imam does not postpone 
the jihad because much is lost in its postponement". 

If the people choose an Amir, he must be obeyed. As mentioned in Fath al Ali al 
Malik 1/253. 

The Sheikh Miyara stated that if there is an absence of an Amir, and the people are 
agreed to appoint a great one in this time, to pave their ways, to make the strong support 
the weak, and he exerts his effort to achieve this to the best of his ability, it is evident 
that to stand against him is not permitted. Who opposes him seeking to create sedition, 
disobeys Islam and disrupts the Jamat. In Sahih Muslim: "Surely it will be predicaments 
and predicaments and who wants to disrupt the order of this Ummah while they are a 
whole, kill him whoever he is". And: "Who came to you while you are united under one 
man, and wants to disrupt your Jamat kill him". 

Third Question 

Can wefight in Afghanistan while the leaders 
are separated and at difference ? 

It is obHgatory to fight in Afghanistan with leaders that are separated and who are 
at difference with each other. Because, fighting is for the defense of the MusHms against 
the aggression of Atheists. 

There is nothing which forbids fighting against unbeHevers and atheists when there 
is more than one Islamic group present. That we consider the leader of each group as the 
A m ir of combat for that group. 

Abu Daud and Ahmad and Sahih al Hakim and agreed upon by ath Thahabi. See Fath ar Rabbani 14/45. 

Fourth Question 

Does onefight alone ifthe rest stay behind? 

Yes he fights alone because Allah the Almighty the Majestic revealed these words 
to His Prophet (saw): "Then fight (O Mohammed s.a.w.) in the cause of AUah, your are 
not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the beUevers (to fight 
along with you) it may be that AUah restrain the evil might of the disbeUevers. And 
AUah is stronger in might and stronger in punishing."^! 

This verse orders the Messenger (saw) in two obhgations: 

1- Fight, even if alone. 

2- Incite the behevers. 

The Lord of Honor relates the wisdom of fighting. It is for restraining the evil 
might of the unbelievers because unbelievers fear not our presence unless we fight: "And 
fight them until there is no more Pitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping 
others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for AUah alone..."^^ gy 
neglecting fighting, Shirk, which is the Pitnah spreads, and Kufr becomes victorious. The 
companions (ra) understood this verse according to its apparent meaning. Abi Ishaq said: 
"When a man throws himself at the Mushrikun does he throw himself into destruction by 
his own handsT He said, "No, because Allah sent his Messenger (saw) and He said: 
"Then fight (O Mohammed s.a.w.) in the cause of AUah, your are not tasked (held 
responsible) except for yourself...", what you cited refers to spending.^^" Reported by 
Ahmad and verified by al Hakim and agreed upon by ath Thahabi. Ibn Arabi said in 
Ahkam al Qur'an 2/954: "There may arise such a situation in which it is obligatory upon 
each and every one to march forward, when jihad is Fard Ayn if the enemy invades one of 
our countries or he surrounds one of our territories. Then, it is obligatory upon the whole 
of creation to march out for jihad. If they fail to respond, they are in sin. If the march is 
general, due to the enemy's occupation of a territory or capture of prisoners, the march is 
obHgatory upon everyone. The Hght, the heavy, the riding, the walking, the slave and the 

^^ Soorat An Nisa': 84. 

^^SooratAl Anfal:39. 

The meaning of "what you cited refers to spending" is deriyed from the verse "And spend in the cause of Allah (i.e. jihad 
of all kinds etc.) and do not throw yourselves into destruction by your own hands..." for neglecting the spending in the 
cause of Allah is the destruction. Al Fath ar Rabbani 14/8. 

free man shall all go out. Whoever has a father, without his permission and whoever has 
not a father, until Allah's religion prevails, defends the territory and the property, 
humiliates the enemy and rescues the prisoners. On this there is no disagreement. What 
does he do is the rest stay behind? 

He finds a prisoner and pays his ransom. He attacks by himself if he is able, and if 
not he prepares a warrior." 

Pighting alone pleases Allah. As in a Hasan hadith reported by Ahmad and Abu 
Daud, he (saw) said: "Our Lord marvels at a man who attacks in the cause of Allah while 
his companions are beaten back and he knows what is upon him and he returns towards 
the fight until his blood is spilt and Allah the Almighty the Majestic says to his Angels: 
"Look at my slave he returned desiring that which is with Me and fearing that which is 
from Me until his blood was spilt."" 

Fifth Question 

Do wefight alongside Muslims that are below acceptable 

levels ofIslamic education? 

This question comes from certain people and some of them are sincere. They ask 
how can we fight with people like Afghanis, amongst them truthful, amongst them the 
dishonest, where smoking and Niswar (type of Tobacco) is widespread, for which he 
would even sell his gun? They are a people who adamantly follow their Hanafi Mathhab 
and some of them wear talismans. 

Before I clarify the ruling of the Shariah, I say : show me a Muslim people on the 
earth who do not have similar problems. Shall we leave the Kuffar in every Muslim land 
because these problems are present? 


We must fight because fighting is based on confronting the greater harm. This principle 
is mentioned in Al Ahkam al Adial al Mad, article 26: "The private harm should be bared 
to protect the public from it". Article 27: "The greater harm may be resolved by the lesser 
harm". Article 28: "If one cannot act except by committing one of two evils, he performs 
the lesser to repel the greater". Article 29: "The lesser of two evils is selected first". We 
must choose from two evils; which is the greater evil: that Russia takes Afghanistan, turns 
it into a Kaffir country and forbids Qur'an and Islam for it. Or, jihad with a nation with 
sins and errors? 

Ibn Taymia said in Majmuat al Patawa 28/506: "It is from tlie principles oiAhlul 
Sunnah wal Jammah to participate in an expedition with every good and bad Muslim. As 
the Prophet (saw) informed us, Allah may support this rehgion even with a bad man or an 
immoral people. If an expedition is not possible except with bad Amirs or with sinful 
soldiers, he must select one of the following two: to turn away from them, leaving the 
expedition in their hands, in which case the enemy could overrun the remaining people, 
which is a greater harm for them in their rehgion and their Hves. Or, participate in an 
expedition with a bad Amir, and in this way the more harmful of the two options may be 
resolved. Even if the MusHms cannot manage to preserve all of their practices, at least 
they manage to preserve most of them. It is obHgatory in this situation and in any similar 
situation. Many expeditions with the Rightly Guided CaHphs happened in this manner. 
The Prophet (saw) affirmed: "There is good in the forelocks of horses until the day of 
resurrection as reward and booty". As long as they are Muslims it is obHgatory to fight 
alongside with them." The banner in Afghanistan is Islamic and the goal is the 
establishment of the religion of Allah in the earth. 

If only the MusHms had fought in Palestine, in spite of the corruption that was 
present in the early stages, and before the situation had become aggravated with the 
arrival of George Habash, Naif Hawatma, Pather Capici and their Hkes, Palestine would 
not have been lost. 

While all the leaders of the Afghani jihad fast and pray, along with other practices, 
and are calling for Islam. 

It is obligatory to fight with any Muslim people as long as they are MusHms. It 
does not matter how bad or corrupted they are as long as they are fighting the Kuffar, 
People of the Book or Atheists. 

Shawkani said in Nayl al Awtar 8/44: "The scholars agree that it is allowed to seek 
help from bad or corrupted Muslims against the Kuffar" 

Sixth Question 

Can we seek helpfrom the Mushrikun ifwe are in a weak condition? 

Some people beHeve in seeking help from America and western states for jihad in 
Afghanistan, and seeking help from Russia against Jews in Palestine. This type of 
assistance is Harram by the agreement of the scholars of Fiqh and it forfeits the ultimate 
aim of jihad. There are several contradictory hadith on this subject. The following are 
hadith that forbid seeking help from Kuffar. 

1- Hadith in Sahih MM5//m: He (saw) said to aMM5/zn/:on the Day of Badr, "Get back, I 
will not accept the help of a Mushrik."^'^ 

2- Another hadith: "We do not seek help from Mushrikun against Mushrikun. " Reported 
by Ahmad and at Tabarani. Haythami said in Majmuat az Zawayd: "The men Ahmad 
and at Tabarani are trustworthy." And there is a sahih narration that Safwaan Bin 
Umaya fought alongside the Prophet (saw) and he was a Kaffir." 

An Nawawi said, in Tahtheeb al Asma wal Loughat 263: "Safwan Bin Umaya saw 
Hunayn with the Prophet (saw) as a Ka^^ir". The Messenger of Allah (saw) borrowed on 
the Day of Hunayn the shields from Safwan Bin Umay. He said to him, "this loan will be 
returned to you". Sahih hadith reported by al Hakim, see Sahih al Jamia 3862. It is well 
narrated by the Biographers that Qasman marched out with the Prophet (saw) on the day 
of Uhud and killed three flag bearers of the MM5/znlMn. The Prophet (saw) said of him: 
"Allah may support this religion by an evil man." Consequently, because of the 
contradictory hadiths the scholars differ as to how to reconcile them. The seeking of help 
from the Mushrikun was forbidden but later abrogated. Al Hafiz in A/ Ta/^/^ee^ said this 
is the best reconciliation, and ash Shaffie agrees.^^ 

The four major scholars of Fiqh are in agreement that seeking assistance from the 
Ku^^ar is restricted to conditions: 

1) The rule of Islam must have the upper hand, that is to say, the Muslims must be 
stronger than the combined group of the Mushrikun from whom they are seeking help as 
well as the Mushrikun they are fighting. In case of the collaboration of the Kuffar against 
the Muslims. 

2) The Kuffar must have a good opinion of the Muslims, and the Muslims must feel safe 
from their treachery and this is estimated from their behavior. 

3) The Muslims must be in need of the Kaffir or the Kuffar they ask help from. 

Opinions of the Mathhabs 

Hanafi Opinion 

Mohammed Bin al Hasan said^^: "It is acceptable for Muslims to ask help from the 
Mushrikun against the Mushrikun if the rule of Islam has the upper hand." Al Jassas^^ 

84 NaylalAutar 7/128. 

85 Nayl al Autar 8/44. 

86 Sharaha Kitab as Sir Faqara 201. 

said: "Our peers said, "it is acceptable to seek help in fighting from Mushrikun against 
Mushrikun that when the coaHtion becomes dominant, the rule of Islam is uppermost. 

Maliki Opinion 

Ibn al Qasim said^^: "It is not my opinion that they may seek their assistance in 
fighting alongside with them unless they occupy servant roles, then I see no problem 
with this." Malik said--: "It is not my opinion that they may seek help from 
Mushrikun a.gsiinst Mushrikun unless they occupy servantroles". 

Shaffie Opinion 

Ar Ramh said^° "The Imam or second in command may ask help from the Kuffar even 
if they are Ahlul Harb if he knows they have a good opinion of us under the condition 
that we need them to serve or fight because we are few." 

Hanbali Opinion 

Ibn Qadamah said^^: "From Ahmad it is permissible to askhelp from the MM5/zr«^Mn, 
in fact it is Ahmad's opinion that the Kaffir has a share in the booty if he participated 
in the expedition under the Imam. He went outside of the opinion of the majority 
which does not allow him a share. 

The Revelation of the Order to Fight 

Many writers commit errors on the subject of the permissibihty of making peace. 
They quote Qur'anic text without knowing the chronological order of the revelation. 
While they must have knowledge of the succession of verses on jihad in the Qur'an that 

Ahkam al Qur'an by Jasssas. 
^^ Al Maduna 2/40. 

89 Al Qurtubi 8/100. 

90 Nihayat al Mahtaj 8/58 and Takmila al Majmua 19/28. 

91 AlMughni 8/414. 

lead up to the revelation of the Verse of the Sword in soorat At Tauba: "...and fight 
against the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbeHevers in the oneness of 
Allah, etc.) collectively, as they fight against you collectively, but know that AUah is 
with those who are Al Muttagun.'"^^ 

"...Then kill the Mushrikun wherever you find them, and capture them and 
besiege them and prepare for them each and every ambush..."^^ ibn al Qayim 
explained in Zad al Mi'ad that jihad was permitted during the Hijr, then it was ordered to 
combat those who fought them, finally it was ordered to fight the Mushrikun in general. 

Ibn Abidin said--: "Know that the order to fight was revealed in stages. The 
Prophet (saw) was initially ordered with Tabligh and turning away. The Exalted said: 
"Therefore proclaim openly (Allah's message - Islamic monotheism) that which you 
are commanded and turn away from the Mushrikun.'"^^ Then to invite with wisdom: 
"Invite (mankind, O Mohammed s.a.w.) to the way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with 
wisdom (i.e. with the divine inspiration and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue 
with them in a way that is better..."^^ Then, permission to fight was granted: 
"Permission to fight is given to those (i.e. believers against disbelievers), who are 
fighting them, (and) because they (believers) have been wronged, and surely, AUah is 
able to give them (believers) victory."97 Then they were ordered to fight if they were 
attacked: "...but if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the 
disbelievers."^s Then, they were ordered to fight with conditions, when the sacred 
months had passed: "Then when the sacred months (the Ist, 7th, llth, and 12th months 
of the Islamic calendar) have past, them kill the Mushrikun wherever you find 
them..."99 Pinally, he was ordered to fight all out in general: "And fight in the way of 
AUah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly AUah Ukes not the 

This is why it is so essential to have knowledge of the sequence of the revelation. 
It is also necessary to clarify that initially it is not permitted to enter into political 
negotiations in the stage which is for Da'wa/z, before the Da'wa/z is properly established 
with an authority which can preserve its aims. If the Islamic Da 'wa/z enters negotiations 

^^ Soorat At Tauba: 5. 

94 Hashiyat Ibn Abidin 3/239. 

95 Soorat Al Hijr: 94. 

96 Soorat An Nahl: 125. 

98 Soorat Al Baqara: 191. 

99 Soorat At Tauba: 5. 

100 Soorat Al Baqarah: 190. 

in the initial stage, then its agenda becomes compromised and muddled and it will 
become inconsistent in the people's understanding. It will have no solid foundation and 
the Da'wah is lost in political games and national ties. 

The example for this period is the noble Soorat: "Say: O Al Kafirun (disbelievers 
in Allah, in his oneness, in His angels, in His books, in his messengers, in the Day of 
Resurrection, in Al Qadar, etc)! I worship not that which you worship, nor you 
worship that which I worship..."ioi and the example of the position of the believers in 
this period: "...Say (O Mohammed s.a.w.): call your (so-called) partners (of Allah) and 
then plot against me and give me no respite! Verily, my Wali (protector, supporter, 
and helper, etc.) is AUah who has revealed the book (the Qur'an), and he protects 
(supports and helps) the righteous."io2 ^g must proclaim our beliefs, make them heard. 
The callers must raise their voices until they are sacrificed on a pyre of Fitnah in which 
their souls will be tried to the limit of their patience. As it was with the Prophet (saw) and 
his companions during the Meccan period. But once the Islamic state was established 
nothing prevented them from making pacts. 

Conditions for Making Peace Treaties With the Kuffar 

The scholars of Fiqh are divided as to whether or not it is permitted to make peace 
treaties with the Kuffar. Among them are some who permit it based on the pact of 
Hudaybia. Others permit it if the Muslims are extremely weak. Others still, say that we 
are no longer permitted to make peace treaties with the Kuffar because they say that all 
pacts with the Kuffar are canceled by the Verse of the Sword. We say, it is permitted to 
make peace treaties, if in the treaty there is good for the Muslims, but under the condition 
that there is no clause within the treaty that nullifies or corrupts it. Such as: 

1 - It is not permitted to include a condition in the treaty that relinquishes even a hand span 
of Muslim land to the Kuffar. Because, the land of Islam belongs to no one, therefore 
none can make negotiations over it. Such a condition nullifies the treaty because the 
land belongs to Allah and to Islam. It is not permitted for anyone to misuse anything 
in a domain not his own. Or to barter the Son of Adam that does not belong to him. 
With reference to the Russians, it is not permitted to negotiate with them until they 

101 Soorat Al Kafirun. 

102 Soorat Al A'raf: 195-196. 


retreat from every hand span of Afghani territory. With the Jews in Palestine, 

If the jihad becomes Fard Ayn it nullifies the peace treaty such as when the enemy 
enters the Muslim lands or intends harm upon them. Fath Aliy of Malik 1/289 on the 
subject of peace treaties in Mayir in the chapter Jihad: "The Caliph signs a peace 
treaty with Christians but the Muslims feel the only solution is Jihad, then his peace 
treaty is annulled and his deed rejected." Wherever the jihad is Far(iA_yn it is not 
permitted to have peace, such as when the enemy conquers Muslims. All that we have 
cited on that which makes jihad Fard Ayn annuls the peace treaty, because it 
discontinues the Fard Ayn, which is jihad to remedy the situation. Qadi Ibn Rushd 
reported that the scholars are agreed that when jihad becomes Fard Ayn it has more of 
a priority than fulfilling the Fard Hajj. The reason for this being, that if jihad is Fard 
Ayn it must be carried out immediately, whereas Hajj may be postponed. The 
mentioned treaty must be abandoned because it does not conform to the Shariah, it is 
not valid nor are its rules binding, according to everyone who has a true understanding 
of the principles of Shariah. Also, the mentioned treaty includes the abandonment of 
the Fard iihad. The abandonment of the Fard iihad is an illegality and every illegality 
is not binding. 

Every condition which entails the abandonment of the Shariah of Allah or neglect of 
Islamic practices nullifies the treaty. It is not permitted for Russia to interfere with the 
government because this corrupts jihad and its aim. 

It is not permitted to contract a treaty including a condition that humiliates the 
Muslims or creates such a sentiment. As reported in a hadith from az Zuhri, who 
said^o^: "when tribulations upon the people became great, the Messenger of Allah 
(saw) sent someone to Uyaina Bin Husn Bin Hanifa Ibn Badr and to Harith Bin Abi 
Auf al Muzni - they were the chiefs of Ghatafan. He offered them one third of the 
fruits of Medina under the condition that they and their forces withdraw from him and 
his companions. They held negotiations but did not finalize the agreement. When he 
wished to finalize the agreement he sent for Saad Bin Muath and Saad Bin Ubadah in 
order to consult with them. He explained to them the situation and said, "as you know 
the Arabs are shooting us through one bow (gathered in their attack against us), what 
do you think of offering them some of the fruits of Medina? They said, "O Messenger 
of Allah (saw) if you say this is your opinion, then your opinion we follow. But, we 

lala as Sinan 12/8. 

never offered them dates except to sell them to them or if they were our guests, and 
that was when we w&re Kuffar. Now Allahhas honored us with Islam". The Prophet 
(saw) was pleased with what they said". Strong with interrupted chain of narration. 
The Ansaar felt that they would be humiliated. And in some narration's: "we don't 
give you but the sword." 

Not to contract a condition which opposes the Shariah of Islam. For Example: 
a- An agreement allowing Mushriks to reside in the land of Harramain (the land of 
the two holy mosques, i.e. the entire Arabian peninsula) because in a hadith: 
"Expel all Jews and Christians from the Arabian peninsula^.^o^ 
b- To return Muslim women to the Kuffar: "...Thenif you know them for true 
beUevers, send them not back to the disbeUevers, they are not lawful (wives) 
for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful (husbands) for them..."io5 
About sending a Muslim man back to the Kuffar there is disagreement among the 
scholars of Fiqh. Some allow for them to be returned in relation to a similar 
condition in the Hudaybia pact. But the rest of the scholars maintain that 
permission for this condition in the Hudaybia treaty was specifically for the 
Messenger of Allah (saw). Because he knew that Allah would find a way out for 
them. This is the majority opinion. Bara Bin Azib said: "The Messenger of Allah 
(saw) laid down three conditions on the day of Hudaybia with the Mushrikun. 
Whoever went to them from the Prophet (saw) would not be sent Back. Who came 
to us from them, they would be returned. The Prophet (saw) said, "who from us 
went to them, Allah distanced him". Agreed upon and Muslim adds: "and who left 
them Allah will make for them an opening and a way out".^^^ 

Similarly, it is not permitted to contract a condition which permits the exposure of the 
practices of the Kuffar in Muslim land. Eor example, allowing the construction of 
churches, monasteries or the circulation of missionaries, all which create Pitnah for 
the Muslims and corrupt their beliefs. Most importantly in the Arabian peninsula. 
Therefore, agreements and the political solution in Palestine are void. Void from their 
very origin. Any amendments are not permissible. In Afghanistan it is permitted 
under conditions: 

1- Withdrawal of Russians from all Muslim territory. 

^^'^ Reported by Muslim/ Al Fath ar Rabbani 14/120. 
^05 Soorat AlMumtahinah: 10. 
106 AlQurtubi 8/39. 

2- If an Islamic state is established in Afghanistan after withdrawal and there is no 
interference in the forth-coming government such as attempting to return the 
king or imposing practices that aim to undermine the beliefs of the Afghani 

3- The withdrawal must be without conditions or restraints. 

4- The Russians must fully acknowledge the mujahideen and ask peace from them: 

"But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in 
AUahio^..." Sudi and Ibn Zaid said: "If the call for a treaty respond to them."io^ 
Ibn Hajr al Haythami said: "a corrupt condition corrupts the contract. For 
example, a condition that prevents the release of prisoners, the withdrawal from 
captured territory, the return of any Muslim prisoners that escape from them, 
their settling in the Hijaz, the appearance of alcohol in our land, or sending back 
who came to us from them^.^o^ 

5- If mujahideen are satisfied that the Russians are sincere in asking for peace and 
will not deceive them. But, those who want to have peace or be its 
intermediaries fail to uphold the aim of the Jihad which is the establishment of an 
Islamic state, because the western countries will not accept it and will resist it. 
These people fail to comprehend the aim of jihad and they haven't a clear Islamic 
vision. Purthermore is not permitted for these people to be fighters in jihad, a 
favor from Allah, nor can they be its leaders. For Allah the Almighty the 
Majestic said: "If AUah brings you back to a party of them (the hypocrites), 
and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: never shall you go out 
with me, nor fight an enemy with me...""o Qurtubi said 8/218: "This indicates 
that the accompaniment of the foolish in an expedition is notpermitted". The 
major scholars of Fiqh have stated in Al Jihad that it is not permitted for the 
arrogant, the pessimist, the hesitant, the coward or the hinderer to accompany the 

O Allah give victory to the Mujahideen in Ajghanistan, in Palestine, in the 
Philippines, in Lebanon and everywhere. And raise the flag ojlslam, the rule ofthe 
Qur'anic state, and grant us martyrdom in your cause. 

Hasshiyat Aah Sharawai and Ibn al Qasim upon Tahfa al Mahtaj 9/306. 
109 AlQurtubi 8/39. 
llOsooratAtTauba: 83. 

Glory be to your Lord, Lord oJHonor and Power. He is free from that which they 
attribute to him and peace be upon the messengers and all the praise and gratitude 

be to Allah Lord of the Worlds. Salutations upon our Prophet Mohammed, upon 
his family, his companions and the predecessors and whoever follows them in 
righteousness until the Day of Judgment. 

Final Word 

Pinally we say, the case is not settled by long lists of quotations or the bringing 
forward of witnesses. Rather, the matter is referred to the heart. If Allah gives it light it 
will see the truth, in which everything is apparent. Otherwise, if the hearts are darkened 
they will not see. "...Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts 
which are in the breast that grow blind.""i 

The vision of the heart is for evidences, and the signs of the Lord are for cultivating 
Tagwa, obedience and enthusiasm for acts of worship. "Verily, proofs have come to 
you from your Lord, so whoever sees, will do so for (the good of) his own self, and 
whosoever bUnds himself, will do so to his own harm, and I (Mohammed s.a.w.) am 
not a watcher over you."!^^ jhjs vision opens forth in the heart the springs of 
perception. A perception not earned by studying. Yerily, it is an understanding given by 
Allah to his servant for His Book and His religion according to the capacity of the heart's 
vision. This vision grows in the field of the heart, that he may discern truth from 

m SooratAlHajj:46. 
^^2 Soorat Al An'am: 104. 

falsehood, the honest from the liar. The Exalted said: "Surely! Therein is indeed a sign 
for the beUevers.""3 

Mujahid said: "In at Tirmithi, Abi Said al Khudri (ra) reported that the Prophet 
(saw) said: "Fear the perception of the believer for he sees with the light of Allah the 
Almighty the Majestic." Then he read: "Surely! Therein is indeed a sign for the 

Everyone who prefers the life of this world from among the scholars, he must lie 
concerning Allah in his Fatawa and rulings, in his lectures and his commands, because 
many of the rules of the Lord conAict with the desires of the people, especially those 
endowed with authority. 

Those who serve their lusts, their desires will not be satisfied except by 
contradicting the truth or rejecting a great part of it. If the scholars and those who govern 
love power and pursue their desires, they will not find fulfillment unless they oppose the 
truth. Especially when the doubtful coincides with their lusts, thus tempting his lower 
nature. What is right becomes hidden and the face of truth is covered. 

If the truth is evident and without doubt, he chooses the controversial and excuses 
himself by saying that he will find an exit in repentance. 

About those, and those like them the Exalted said: "Then, there has succeeded a 
posterity who have given up prayers (i.e. made their prayers to be lost, either by not 
offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper 
fixed times. etc.) and have followed lusts..."ii5 jhg Exalted also said about them: 
"Then after them succeeded them an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but 
they chose (for themselves) the good of this low life (evil pleasures of this world) saying 
(as an excuse): (Everything) will be forgiven to us. And if (again) the offer of the like 
(evil pleasures of this world) came their way, they would (again) seize them (would 
commit those sins). Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they 
would not say about AUah anything but the truth? And they studied what is in it (the 
Book). And the home of the hereafter is better for those who are Al Muttagun. Do 
not you then understand?""^ 

To follow vain desires blinds the eye of the heart, until it can no longer differentiate 
between Sunnah and fi/fi?'a/z, or itinevitably reverses them that itperceives thefi/fi?'a/z as 
Sunnah. This is the plague the scholars suffer when they prefer the life of this world and 
pursue lusts and follow after leaders.^^^ The following verses refer to them: "And recite 

^^^ Soorat Maryam: 59. 
ll^SooratAl A'araf: 169. 
ll^^AlPuayid: 113-114. 

(O Mohammed) to them the story of him to whom we gave our Ayat (proofs evidences 
lessons signs revelations, etc.) but he threw them away, so Satan followed him up, and 
he became of those who went astray. And had We willed, we would surely have 
elevated him therewith but he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desire. 
So his description is the description of a dog: if you drive him away, he loUs his 
tongue out, or if you leave alone he (still) loUs his tongue out...""^ 

Quotations will not suffice, because the perception of the truth rehes on the 
enUghtenment of the heart. 

When the heart has a strong attachment to the Hfe of this world, and the bearer of 
this heart is immersed in sin, Ran (black covering) overcomes the heart. Because, every 
sin is a black stain on the heart. These black stains accumulate until the Ran is total and 
prevents the penetration of hght to the heart. 

When the heart is darkened, things no longer appear as they truly are, for truth is 
confused and its face no longer apparent. The heart is inverted and sees truth as falsehood 
and falsehood as truth. 

There must be Tagwa that the capacity for discernment is developed, the heart 

cleansed, that if may accord things their proper order: "O you who believe! If you obey 

and fear AUah, He will grant you Furqan a criterion (to judge between right and 

wrong or Makhraj, i.e. making a way for you to get out from every difficulty), and will 

expiate for you your sins, and forgive you, and AUah is the owner of the great 

When they were in confusion over difficult questions they should say, "ask the 
people of the battle fronts because they are the nearest to Allah". 

They asked Ahmad Bin Hanbal: "Who do we ask after you?" He said, "ask Aba 
Bakr al Waraq for he possesses Taqwa as it ought to be, and I hope he will be successful 
in answering." 

In Bukhari and Muslim a hadith Marfu\ "In the past among the nations before you 
there were inspired men and if there was one in my nation it would be Umar Bin 
Khattab," and Umar was true to this. 

MusHm narrates in his sahih from Aisha (ra), who said: "The Messenger of Allah 
(saw) would open his prayer when he stood at night with: Our Lord of Jibreel and 
Mikaeel, Originator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the unseen and the seen, you 
judge between your slaves in that in which they are at difference. Guide me from that in 
which they differ to the truth by Your leave. You guide whom You will to the straight 

ll^SooratAl A'raf: 175-176. 

Pinally we supplicate by the blessed verse: "...O Lord! Judge between us and 
our people in truth, for you are the best of those who give judgment."i2o We repeat 

the supplication of the Messenger of Allah (saw) as reported in sahih Muslim: 

"O Allah guide us from that in which they differ to the truth by your permission. 

You guide whom you will to the straight path. Our Lord forgive us and our brethren who 

preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts any hatred towards those who have beheved. 

Our Lord you are indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful. 

O Allah make us live in contentment and die as Shaheed and gather us among the 

group of Mustafa (saw). Glory be to you O Allah and praise, I bear witness that there is 

no god but you. I seek your forgiveness and to you I repent. 


Ansaar: anyone of the companions of the Prophet (saw) from the inhabitants of Medina, 
who received and hosted the MusHm immigrants from Mecca and other places. 

Ahlul Harb: all people belonging to the nation of the enemy. 

Ahlul Sunnah wa Jammah: those who follow the authentic Sunnah of the prophet 
according to the understanding of the companions of the Prophet (saw). 

Alim: scholar or man of knowledge. 

Amir: chief, commander, leader, master. 

Amirul Mu'mineen: leader of the beUevers. 

Ard: all things held in honor: women, family, country, dignity etc. 

120 Soorat Al A'raf: 89 

Bid'ah: innovation in religion. any act or practice not found in the Sunnali of tlie Propliet 

(saw) or tlie Qur'an. 
Da'wah: preaching, inviting, calhng (to Islam, jihad, etc.) 
Da'i: one who performs Da'wah. 
Fara'id: .plural of Fard. 
Fard: compulsory, obhgatory duty. 
Fard Ayn: greatest degree of obhgation. compulsory such as five daily prayers, Hajj, 

fasting the month of Ramadan and so on. 
Fard Kifaya: Initially compulsory, but voluntary upon fulfinment of specific conditions. 
Fatawa: plural of Fatwa. 
Fatwa: legalruHng. 
Fiqh: Islamic jurisprudence. 
Fitnah: trial, tribulation, temptation. 
Hadith: report of the Prophet's (saw) words or actions. 
Hafiz: one who has committed the Qur'an in its entirety to memory. 
Harram: forbidden according to the Shariah. 

Hasan: good. second highest degree of authenticity in hadith classification. 
Hijaz: the Arabian peninsula. 
Hijr: emigration in the cause of Allah. 
Ijma: consensus of the Ulama. 
Iman : belief , faith. 
Jamat: group, gathering, community. 
Jizya: head tax imposed by Islam on non-MusHms living under the protection of an 

Islamic government. 
Kaffir: disbeliever, infidel. 
Kuffar: plural of Kaffir. 
Kufr: disbeHef. 
Marfu': uninterrupted chain of narration leading to the Prophet (saw), therefore reporting 

Mathhab: school of thought in Islamic jurisprudence. The four major ones being: Maliki, 

Shaffie, HanbaH and Hanafi. 
Muhaditheen: Scholar speciaHzing in hadith. 

Mushrikun: polytheist, pagans, idolaters. people who practice Shirk. 
Qiyas: (Principle of Fiqh) Juristic reasoning, inference by deduction, by analogy. 
Rakat: unit of prayer, consisting of one series of prostrations. 
Ribatt: waiting in preparation to meet the enemy. 

Sahih: correct. certified. highest ranking of authenticity in hadith classification. 
Salaf: pious people of the early generations of Islam. 

Shariah: Islamic law. 

Shaheed: Martyr in the cause of Allah. 

Shaytaan: Satan, demon. 

Sheikh: elder. Title usually attributed to man of knowledge. 

Shirk: associating partners with Allah, the worship of false gods or idols. 

Shuhada: plural of Shaheed. 

Sunnah: legal ways, practices, orders, acts of worship and statements etc. of the Prophet 

(saw) that have become model followed by Muslims. 
Tabligh: to convey, notify, inform, declare. 
Tafseer: commentary, interpretation of Qur'an. 
Tagwa: fear of Allah, piety, devoutness, religiousness 
Ulama: plural of Alim. 
Ummah: the entire community of Muslims. 
Zakat: compulsory Islamic charity. 


All translation of Qur'anic text taken from: 

THE NOBLE QUR'AN: A summariied Yersion of At-Tabari,Al Qurtubi and Ibn Kathir 
with comments from Sahih al Bukhari. Summarized in One Yolume. trans. by Dr. 
Mohammed Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali and Dr. Mohammed Muhsin Khan. Maktaba Dar- 
us-Salam: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1993.